Archive for the ‘Bearing Witness’ Category

19th Oesterreicher Lecture at Seton Hall

October 10, 2012
This is an excellent opportunity for doubters to come to understand whether the threat of Holocaustolatry within the Church is exaggerated or rather understated here.

19th Oesterreicher Lecture

Tuesday, October 9, 2012

by: Laurie Pine

The Rev. Dennis McManus will discuss The Holocaust Matrix: Its Destructive Past and Its Dangerous Future at 2:30 p.m. on Sunday, November 4, at The 19th Monsignor John M. Oesterreicher Memorial Lecture. The program is hosted by The Institute of Judaeo-Christian Studies. Sponsored by the Msgr. J. M. Oesterreicher Endowment, the event is free and open to the community. The event will take place at Seton Hall University’s Walsh University Library Beck Rooms, 400 South Orange, NJ.

”The many-faceted work of the Reverend Dr. Dennis McManus provides a background for his insights into the Shoah (Holocaust) and implications for continuing reflection on this important topic.” (Father Lawrence Frizzell, Director, The Institute of Judaeo-Christian Studies).

The Rev. Dennis McManus, Ph.D., teaches at St. John’s Seminary in Boston and at Georgetown University in Washington, D.C. He is Consultant for Jewish Affairs at the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) and belongs to the Church Relations Committee of the United States Memorial Holocaust Museum. Since 1997 he has been very active in the Anti-Defamation League/USCCB joint program in Holocaust Education “Bearing Witness,” offered nationally in Catholic dioceses. He is director of the Jan Karski Institute for Holocaust and Genocide Studies at Georgetown University. He has contributed to the Cambridge Dictionary of Christian-Jewish Relations (2005) and to Ancient Christian Commentary (InterVarsity Press). His forthcoming book will address the achievements of Pope Benedict XVI with the Jewish community.

Monsignor Oesterreicher, a European-born Jew who converted to Catholicism at the age of 20, devoted his early years in the priesthood to parish work, ecumenism and peace. During the years of Nazi persecution he combatted Adolph Hitler’s glorification of race and hatred for Jews, eventually escaping from the Gestapo in 1938 via Switzerland and Paris and travelling circuitously through Spain and Portugal, finally arriving in the United States in 1940. After serving in several parishes in New York City, he was invited to Seton Hall University in March 1953 and became founding director of the Institute of Judaeo-Christian Studies.

The late Monsignor Oesterreicher wrote in The Rediscovery of Judaism (1971), “True sensitivity sees not only the volcano of evil that erupted in Auschwitz, Treblinka, and Bergen-Belsen, but also the ultimate failure of the greatest poisoner of history; for all his success, he did not triumph. Horrible though it was, the ‘Final Solution’ was anything but final. Six million Jews died, but the Jewish people lives. What this sentence really means is exemplified by the State of Israel. Here, an ancient people that for almost two thousand years was severed from the soil, that as a whole had not been involved in statecraft, that in the days of Hitler had been defaced in every possible way, was rejuvenated.”

The Advisory Board of the Institute of Judaeo-Christian Studies includes Director Reverend Lawrence E. Frizzell, D.Phil.; Michelle Dahl, Ed. D.;Sister Phyllis Kapuscinski, N.D.S., Ph.D.; M. Therese Liddy, M.A.; Reverend Msgr. Gerard H. McCarren, S.T.D.; Reverend John F. Morley, Ph.D.; Sister Alice Swartz, R.S.M., Ph.D.; and Sister Anita Talar, R.S.M., M.L.S.

For more information, contact Reverend Lawrence Frizzell at (973) 761-9751 or Lawrence.Frizzell@shu.edu.

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More Catholic School Teachers to the ADL Guilt Chambers

July 7, 2012

U.S. Catholic School Educators Will Visit Holy Land on ADL Mission to Israel

New York, NY, July 6, 2012 … A group of Catholic school educators from 10 states across the country will be traveling to the Holy Land on an Anti-Defamation League (ADL) mission that aims to provide an advance course of study on anti-Semitism, the Holocaust and Catholic-Jewish relations.

The 19 participants in the nationally acclaimed ADL Bearing Witness Advanced™ program will be traveling in Israel July 11-18, where they will visit Christian and Jewish holy sites and meet with Holocaust survivors, members of the Israeli government, Arab Israelis, Israeli journalists, Catholic dignitaries, Jewish community leaders, interfaith experts and scholars [but no Palestinian Christians].

The educators represent middle and high schools in Connecticut, New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Illinois and California.

“This mission is essential to helping Catholic educators gain a deeper understanding of the historic relationship between the Catholic and Jewish communities and develop the tools needed to teach about the Holocaust, anti-Semitism and modern-day Israel,” said David Waren, ADL Director of Education. “Now in its 8th year, the ADL Bearing Witness Advanced program continues to give Catholic educators the opportunity to gain firsthand knowledge of the Jewish state and enhance their appreciation of the country and its history. The educators are then able to bring these experiences and lessons home to their students, fellow educators and communities” …

Full artice:

http://www.adl.org/PresRele/ChJew_31/6344_31.htm

Also see:

Rabbis Preach Guilt in Catholic Schools

Catholic School Teachers Programmed to “Bear Witness” to Holocaustolatry

ADL Expands ‘Holocaust’ ‘Education’ Workshop

Pope Appoints ‘Holocaust’ Guilt Booster to Council Overseeing Catholic Education

Pope Appoints ‘Holocaust’ Guilt Booster to Council Overseeing Catholic Education

December 30, 2010

SSPX members, are you ready for the rabbis and their helpers’ intensive ‘Holocaust’ guilt programming? Are you amenable to your children learning that Catholicism “paved the road to Auschwitz”? This is what “communion with Rome” in Rome’s present degraded state entails.

Cardinal Donald Wuerl of Washington, D.C., has been named a voting member of two Vatican offices that oversee efforts to teach the Catholic faith and that promote relationships with other Christians and with Jews.

On Wednesday Pope Benedict XVI named Pittsburgh’s former bishop to the Congregation for Clergy and the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity. The latter includes the Vatican’s commission for relations with Jews. He will travel to Rome for meetings.

His appointment to the Congregation for Clergy surprised no one … It oversees instruction, ranging from catechisms for children to seminary training. Cardinal Wuerl is the author of several popular catechisms.

“I would hope they would ask me to concentrate in the area of catechetics, of teaching the faith. When I was a consultant, it was always the area they asked me to work on,” he said.

He was a bit surprised at his appointment to the Council for Promoting Christian Unity. But non-Catholic friends of his who often work with that office thought it was a brilliant choice …

Rabbi Alvin Berkun of Pittsburgh, a longtime participant in Catholic-Jewish dialogue at the Vatican level, believes his old friend may help prevent future problems [in Catholic-Judaic ‘relations’].

“It’s a great move,” Rabbi Berkun said. “He brings a wonderful measure of sensitivity and caring and involvement in these matters. This uses his skills in a wonderful way.” (“Cardinal Wuerl appointed to 2 Vatican offices,” Ann Rodgers, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, December 30, 2010)

http://www.post-gazette.com/pg/10364/1114317-455.stm#ixzz19c7VGP5P

Catholic school educators participating in [the ADL program, Bearing Witness] to learn how to teach about the Holocaust and anti-Semitism are helping to build positive relations between Catholics and Jews and all people, Archbishop Donald Wuerl said July 22.

Addressing participants in the Bearing Witness program, Archbishop Wuerl told the educators they are helping to “raise the level of awareness (of their students) of our positive relations with our Jewish brothers and sisters.”

More than two dozen Catholic school educators from the Archdiocese of Washington and five other states gathered in Washington last week to participate in the Bearing Witness program. During nearly a week of professional development, the educators not only learned how to teach about the Holocaust and anti-Semitism, but they also explored the history of anti-Semitism, Catholic teachings on Jews and Judaism, and contemporary issues of prejudice.

Archbishop Donald Wuerl said the importance of the program “is found in both its goal and its accomplishments.” He said the program helps educators “build on growing mutual Jewish-Catholic understanding” …

[The Bearing Witness program is] jointly sponsored by the [Washington D.C.] archdiocese, the ADL, the National Catholic Educational Association (NCEA), the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum and the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops.

Participation in the program has … grown. Archdiocesan educators are now joined by their counterparts from throughout Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Delaware, Minnesota and Missouri. For five days, the educators meet in Washington to receive training and resources so that they can share the lessons of anti-Semitism, the Holocaust, and modern-day prejudice with their students.

Similar programs have begun in other parts of the country, and two years ago, the Bearing Witness program was presented with the NCEA’s President’s Award. In the past the past 14 years, Bearing Witness has trained more than 1,300 Catholic school educators nationwide, impacting 195,000 students across the country. The program is open to Catholic high school and middle teachers of history, religion, social studies, and English, as well as administrators and librarians …

During the [week-long program], Catholic educators ate a traditional sabbath dinner at a synagogue, learned about Jewish beliefs and practices from a rabbi, toured the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum, met with Archbishop Wuerl at the USCCB headquarters and met Holocaust survivor Halina Peabody …

Archbishop Wuerl, reminding the participants that “we come out of the Jewish tradition,” noted that he has long had an interest in “our religious commonality.” While he was bishop of Pittsburgh, he started a program where priests and rabbis gathered for “wonderful and fruitful dialogue.” Also in that diocese, he invited rabbis to give lectures to Catholic high school students. (“Archbishop Wuerl says Bearing Witness Holocaust education program builds understanding,” Richard Szczepanowski, Catholic Standard, July 22, 2010)

http://www.cathstan.org/main.asp?Search=1&ArticleID=4021&SectionID=2&SubSectionID=2&S=1

Also see:

Rabbis Preach Guilt in Catholic Schools

Catholic School Teachers Programmed to “Bear Witness” to Holocaustolatry

Chief Rabbis Ask Pope for Holocaust Studies Requirement in Catholic Schools

Rabbi Abraham Heschel: “I Want to Attack Their Souls”


Does Bishop Fellay Actually Believe They Would Leave Us Alone?

ADL Expands ‘Holocaust’ ‘Education’ Workshop

October 13, 2010

I’ve been warning of this assault on the minds of children since 2005 to a largely apathetic traditional Catholic movement. I hope traditional Catholics aren’t waiting for a sign from The Remnant, CFN, “the Fatima Priest,” Bishop Fellay and the rest of traditionalism’s leading lights as to the seriousness of this problem.

ADL revises annual Holocaust education programs

By Ryan Torok – Jewish Journal

Oct. 13, 2010

The Anti-Defamation League’s (ADL) annual Holocaust Education Workshop, which emphasizes Holocaust education in the classroom and will feature four sessions Nov. 3-10, will, for the first time, overlap with “Bearing Witness,” the organization’s long-running, three-day workshop for Catholic-school teachers, seminarians and priests, which takes place Nov. 7-9.

Attendees from the two programs will come together for an eight-hour intensive learning session Nov. 7 at American Jewish University, where topics will include the “History of Anti-Semitism,” “Guidelines and Methodologies for Teaching the Holocaust,” “History of the Holocaust” and “Israel and Modern Anti-Semitism.”

The last, a new addition to the workshop curriculum, examines the “linkage between what happened in the Holocaust and how Israel is perceived around the world now,” said ADL Pacific Southwest Regional Director Amanda Susskind.

Father Dennis McManus, a consultant on Catholic-Jewish affairs at the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops, will speak at the “Bearing Witness” program, which, Susskind said, is “a program tailored to the Catholic-school experience.”

Its purpose, Susskind added, “is not just to teach about the Holocaust, but to teach about the miraculous change in the Catholic-Jewish relationship in the last 40 years.”

Father Alexei Smith, ecumenical and interreligious officer for the Archdiocese of Los Angeles, said he hopes teachers don’t confuse the two ADL workshops as being in competition with each other.

“I’m a little afraid that one will outdo the other,” Smith said. “I know teachers, [and] they only have so much time to come to programs.”

Earlier this month, the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, in partnership with Loyola Marymount University (LMU), similarly revised its 10th annual Southern California Teacher Forum on Holocaust Education. Organizers for the program, which is held at LMU, for the first time developed the agenda with Catholic educators in mind.

http://www.jewishjournal.com/community/article/adl_revises_annual_holocaust_education_programs_20101013/

Also see:

Rabbis Preach Guilt in Catholic Schools

Catholic School Teachers Programmed to “Bear Witness” to Holocaustolatry

Chief Rabbis Ask Pope for Holocaust Studies Requirement in Catholic Schools

Catholic School Teachers Programmed to "Bear Witness" to Holocaustolatry

July 30, 2009

“Advanced” Holocaustolatry:

In Israel, Catholic School Teachers Study Anti-Semitism & the Holocaust

New York, NY, July 30, 2009 … Catholic school teachers from around the country traveled to Israel to learn about anti-Semitism and the Holocaust as part of the Anti-Defamation League’s (ADL) nationally acclaimed Bearing Witness Advanced program.

Bearing Witness Advanced provides educators with an opportunity to gain firsthand knowledge of Israel against the backdrop of Jewish history, the Holocaust and Catholic-Jewish relations.

“Combining experts’ knowledge of the Holocaust with the words of those who experienced it can have a unique and powerful impact,” said Dr. Ed S. Alster, ADL’s Director of Education. “The teachers learned firsthand how anti-Semitism can lead to tragedy if left unchecked. The experience should enable them to convey these lessons to their students more effectively.”

At Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority, the teachers heard from Holocaust survivors, historians and pedagogical experts. They also visited Christian and Jewish holy sites, and met with interfaith experts. To lend a contemporary sense of Israel, the group traveled around the country, and met with authors, journalists and political analysts.

To prepare for the trip, the educators attended an introductory seminar at Seton Hall University with Holocaust and anti-Semitism experts.

The 19 participants in the 2009 Bearing Witness Advanced seminar hailed from Arizona, California, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Montana, New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania. All are graduates of regional ADL Bearing Witness programs.

Since its inception, Bearing Witness has trained more than 1,000 Catholic school educators across the country. In 1998 it became an ADL nationally sponsored program and ADL regional offices began replicating the initiative in 2002. Bearing Witness is endorsed by the National Catholic Educational Association (NCEA) and the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops.

The Anti-Defamation League, founded in 1913, is the world’s leading organization fighting anti-Semitism through programs and services that counteract hatred, prejudice and bigotry.

http://www.adl.org/PresRele/ChJew_31/5573_31.htm

see:

Fact Sheet on the ADL

Rabbis Preach Guilt in Catholic Schools

New Testament and Catholic Schools Processed by Talmudic Dialectics

Cardinal Keeler Honored by ADL

NY’s New Archbishop Gets Straight to Work

USCCB Still Foisting Shoah Business on Catholics

Chief Rabbis Ask Pope for Holocaust Studies in Catholic Schools

neoBolshevik Warfare Taking Place in Catholic Classrooms

Bad Advice From the Pope

“Auschwitz: Beginning of a New Era?”

Catholic School Teachers Programmed to "Bear Witness" to Holocaustolatry

July 30, 2009

“Advanced” Holocaustolatry:

In Israel, Catholic School Teachers Study Anti-Semitism & the Holocaust

New York, NY, July 30, 2009 … Catholic school teachers from around the country traveled to Israel to learn about anti-Semitism and the Holocaust as part of the Anti-Defamation League’s (ADL) nationally acclaimed Bearing Witness Advanced program.

Bearing Witness Advanced provides educators with an opportunity to gain firsthand knowledge of Israel against the backdrop of Jewish history, the Holocaust and Catholic-Jewish relations.

“Combining experts’ knowledge of the Holocaust with the words of those who experienced it can have a unique and powerful impact,” said Dr. Ed S. Alster, ADL’s Director of Education. “The teachers learned firsthand how anti-Semitism can lead to tragedy if left unchecked. The experience should enable them to convey these lessons to their students more effectively.”

At Yad Vashem, the Holocaust Martyrs’ and Heroes’ Remembrance Authority, the teachers heard from Holocaust survivors, historians and pedagogical experts. They also visited Christian and Jewish holy sites, and met with interfaith experts. To lend a contemporary sense of Israel, the group traveled around the country, and met with authors, journalists and political analysts.

To prepare for the trip, the educators attended an introductory seminar at Seton Hall University with Holocaust and anti-Semitism experts.

The 19 participants in the 2009 Bearing Witness Advanced seminar hailed from Arizona, California, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Montana, New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania. All are graduates of regional ADL Bearing Witness programs.

Since its inception, Bearing Witness has trained more than 1,000 Catholic school educators across the country. In 1998 it became an ADL nationally sponsored program and ADL regional offices began replicating the initiative in 2002. Bearing Witness is endorsed by the National Catholic Educational Association (NCEA) and the U.S. Conference of Catholic Bishops.

The Anti-Defamation League, founded in 1913, is the world’s leading organization fighting anti-Semitism through programs and services that counteract hatred, prejudice and bigotry.

http://www.adl.org/PresRele/ChJew_31/5573_31.htm

see:

Fact Sheet on the ADL

Rabbis Preach Guilt in Catholic Schools

New Testament and Catholic Schools Processed by Talmudic Dialectics

Cardinal Keeler Honored by ADL

NY’s New Archbishop Gets Straight to Work

USCCB Still Foisting Shoah Business on Catholics

Chief Rabbis Ask Pope for Holocaust Studies in Catholic Schools

neoBolshevik Warfare Taking Place in Catholic Classrooms

Bad Advice From the Pope

“Auschwitz: Beginning of a New Era?”

USCCB Still Foisting Shoah Business on Catholics

August 15, 2008

Washington Archbishop Donald Wuerl discusses the Holocaust during an Aug. 7 address to Catholic educators participating in the Bearing Witness program, a summer institute sponsored by the Washington office of the Anti-Defamation League in partnership with the Archdiocese of Washington and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. At right are Rosemary Regan and Malcolm McCluskey, religion teachers from Elizabeth Seton High School in Bladensburg. The ADL also cooperated with the National Catholic Educational Association and the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops to provide the summer institute to educators.

http://cathstan.org/main.asp?SectionID=2&SubSectionID=2&ArticleID=1854

Wouldn’t it be something to see the USCCB organizing programs for Catholics to preach in the yeshivas against the genocidal nature of Judaism and the crimes of genocidal Judaic Bolsheviks, Israelis and U.S.-based Zionists?

More on the ADL’s “Bearing Witness” program here:

Rabbis Preach Guilt in Catholic Schools

New Testament and Catholic Schools Processed by Talmudic Dialectics

Cardinal Keeler Honored by ADL

USCCB Still Foisting Shoah Business on Catholics

August 15, 2008

Washington Archbishop Donald Wuerl discusses the Holocaust during an Aug. 7 address to Catholic educators participating in the Bearing Witness program, a summer institute sponsored by the Washington office of the Anti-Defamation League in partnership with the Archdiocese of Washington and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. At right are Rosemary Regan and Malcolm McCluskey, religion teachers from Elizabeth Seton High School in Bladensburg. The ADL also cooperated with the National Catholic Educational Association and the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops to provide the summer institute to educators.

http://cathstan.org/main.asp?SectionID=2&SubSectionID=2&ArticleID=1854

Wouldn’t it be something to see the USCCB organizing programs for Catholics to preach in the yeshivas against the genocidal nature of Judaism and the crimes of genocidal Judaic Bolsheviks, Israelis and U.S.-based Zionists?

More on the ADL’s “Bearing Witness” program here:

Rabbis Preach Guilt in Catholic Schools

New Testament and Catholic Schools Processed by Talmudic Dialectics

Cardinal Keeler Honored by ADL

USCCB Still Foisting Shoah Business on Catholics

August 15, 2008

Washington Archbishop Donald Wuerl discusses the Holocaust during an Aug. 7 address to Catholic educators participating in the Bearing Witness program, a summer institute sponsored by the Washington office of the Anti-Defamation League in partnership with the Archdiocese of Washington and the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. At right are Rosemary Regan and Malcolm McCluskey, religion teachers from Elizabeth Seton High School in Bladensburg. The ADL also cooperated with the National Catholic Educational Association and the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops to provide the summer institute to educators.

http://cathstan.org/main.asp?SectionID=2&SubSectionID=2&ArticleID=1854

Wouldn’t it be something to see the USCCB organizing programs for Catholics to preach in the yeshivas against the genocidal nature of Judaism and the crimes of genocidal Judaic Bolsheviks, Israelis and U.S.-based Zionists?

More on the ADL’s “Bearing Witness” program here:

Rabbis Preach Guilt in Catholic Schools

New Testament and Catholic Schools Processed by Talmudic Dialectics

Cardinal Keeler Honored by ADL

Cardinal Keeler Honored by ADL

April 15, 2008

During the ADL reward ceremony Keeler made reference to an ADL program with a typically Orwellian title, “Bearing Witness,” praising the program and thanking the ADL for it. For background on this ADL program of subversion of Catholic schools, read the following:

Rabbis Preach Guilt in Catholic Schools

New Testament and Catholic Schools Processed by Talmudic Dialectics

The ADL press release:

ADL Honors Cardinal Keeler For His Leadership In Catholic-Jewish Relations

Washington, D.C., April 14, 2008 … The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) today honored William Cardinal Keeler with the ADL Cardinal Bea Interfaith Award in recognition of his enduring work in repairing the Catholic Church’s relations with the Jewish people and for promoting Catholic-Jewish dialogue and partnerships.

“Cardinal Keeler has been at the epicenter of Catholic-Jewish relations since the historic changes brought about during the Second Vatican Council and the adoption of Nostra Aetate,” said Abraham H. Foxman, ADL National Director, in presenting the award. “For the past 44 years, Cardinal Keeler has been instrumental in building and deepening the new positive relationship between Catholics and Jews in the United States and around the world. He is truly a world leader in building human bridges of respect and understanding between our two faith communities.”

In accepting the award, Cardinal Keeler thanked ADL for its work in interfaith relations, including the League’s Bearing Witness™ Program, which brings together educators from Catholic schools to learn about anti-Semitism and the Holocaust and how to teach those lessons to young people. “You should be very proud of what Bearing Witness is doing, not only in my hometown of Baltimore, but also throughout the country and around the world,” said Cardinal Keeler.

Ordained a Catholic priest in 1955, Cardinal Keeler was appointed Special Advisor to Pope John XXIII during the Second Vatican Council, in which the Church discussed and deliberated on its relationship to the Jewish people. The result was the historic document, Nostra Aetate, which repudiates the centuries-old “deicide” charge against all Jews, stresses the religious bond shared by Jews and Catholics and reaffirms the eternal covenant between God and the People of Israel.

Appointed Archbishop of Baltimore by Pope John Paul II in 1989, Cardinal Keeler was named to the College of Cardinals in 1994. As President of the United States Conference of Catholic Bishops, he was instrumental in building interfaith bonds and addressed issues involving all Christian faiths and Jews.

During Pope John Paul II’s 1987 trip to the United States, Cardinal Keeler initiated a meeting between the Pope and Jewish leaders, and organized a first-ever interfaith ceremony in the United States involving Jews, Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists and the Pope in Los Angeles.

An acknowledged leader within the Roman Catholic Church for promoting its positions on inter-religious dialogue, Cardinal Keeler is admired by Jewish leaders for his integrity, honesty and tireless efforts at building interfaith dialogue.

The inscription on the award reads: “ADL Cardinal Bea Award presented to William Cardinal Keeler in appreciation for your distinguished service in promoting positive relations between the Jewish and Catholic communities and for fostering mutual understanding between faiths.”

The ADL Cardinal Bea Interfaith Award was established to perpetuate the memory of Cardinal Bea, the enlightened German Jesuit scholar who deepened and enriched relations between Catholics and Jews. Cardinal Bea’s efforts made possible the positive statement of Vatican Council II on Jews and Judaism. Past recipients of the award include John Cardinal O’Connor, Archbishop of New York; the Most Rev. Francis John Mugavero, Archbishop of Brooklyn; Archbishop Justin Cardinal Rigali of St. Louis, Archbishop Adam Cardinal Maida of Detroit; and Bishop James W. Malone of Youngstown, Ohio.

http://www.adl.org/PresRele/ChJew_31/5269_31.htm